Disease: Yersiniosis

This page provides general information about this condition. Text can be revealed by clicking on the green headers. Links to press releases, results from DWHC investigations as well as other useful documents and relevant literature available on the DWHC website can be found at the bottom of the page.

Pathogen

Yersiniosis refers to the group of diseases caused by members of the pathogenic strains of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and enterolitica [3,6,10]. Both species of this bacteria can survive and replicate in animals, soil and aquatic environments [6,10]. Both show worldwide distribution but are particularly prevalent in subtropical climates.

Susceptible species

Yersinia infection has been described in many species of wild mammals and birds [2,5,7,8,10,11], as well as in domestic animals and man [3,4]. Spread of infection occurs via oral uptake of contaminated food or water [4,6]. Domestic pigs are considered to be the primary source of Y.enterocolitica [3]. The most important reservoirs of Y. pseudotuberculosis are rodents, birds and lagomorphs; indeed there are numerous reports of death amongst European hares being caused by this bacteria [2,8,9,11], particularly in cold, wet periods [2,8]. It is possible that yersiniosis plays an important role in the regulation of hare population sizes in Europe [2,8].

Signs in animals

After ingestion the bacteria establishes infection in the intestinal wall and spreads from here to the lymph nodes that drain the gut, eventually entering the blood stream [4].

Clinical signs of infection with either species of the bacteria are similar and are typically due to enteritis (infection of the intestines) i.e. diarrhoea, weight-loss and weakness [6].  In severe cases the bacteria or toxins can enter the blood causing septicaemia (blood poisoning) [4,6]. Infection can be fatal.

It is possible to diagnose Yersiniosis by post-mortem exam based on the combination of characteristic lesions and  bacterial identification by culture (which requires a special technique known as cold-enrichment culture) [4,5]; or molecular testing of the tissues (PCR) [5]. It is important to note that intestinal contents may contain non-pathogenic strains of Yersinia whose present is not associated with disease.

Infection of people

Infection with either Y. pseudotuberculosis or Y. enterocolitica have been described in people [3,6]. Although infection may be derived from the environment, it is nonetheless sensible to acknowledge the possibility of infection being spread via contact with infected wild animals and accordingly to take extra precautions when handling susceptible animal species, particularly hares [6].

Another very important member of the Yersinia family of bacteria is Yersinia pestis, the cause of human plague, responsible for the black death and with a record of decimating populations throughout history. Yersinia pestis is closely related to and possibly even derived from Y. pseudotuberculosis [1] which may explain why, during the last European plague pandemic, the spread of the disease was limited [4].

 

References

  1. Achtman M. Zurth K. Morelli G. Torrea G. Guiyoule A. and Carniel E. 1999. Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a recently emerged clone of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 96, 24: 14043–14048.
  2. Bartling C. Wölfel R. Nikolaou K. Petry T. Thiede S. Hildebrandt T. Fassbender M. Göritz F. Blottner S. Spittler H. and Neubauer H. 2004.Prevalence of anti-Yersinia antibodies in European brown hares in North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Deutsche tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 111, 6: 259-262.
  3. Bockemühl J. and Roggentin P. 2004. Intestinal yersiniosis. Clinical importance, epidemiology, diagnosis, and prevention. Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz, 47, 7: 685-691.
  4. Fenwick S.G. and Collett M.G. Yersinia spp. Infections. In: Coetzer J.A.C. and Tustin R.C. eds. 2004. Infectious Diseases of Livestock: Vol. 3. Oxford University Press: 1617-1627.
  5. Freriksson-Ahomaa M. Wacheck S. Koenig M. Stolle A. Stephan R. 2009.Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in Switzerland. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 135: 199-202.
  6. Gasper P.W. and Watson R.P. Plague and yersiniosis. In Williams E.S. and Barker I.K. eds. 2001. Infectious Diseases of Wild Animals 3rd ed. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State Univ Press: 313-329.
  7. Nikolava S. Tzvetkov Y. Najdenski H. and Vesselnova A. 2001. Isolation of pathogenic Yersiniae from wild animals in Bulgaria. J. Vet. Med. B 48, 203-209.
  8. Stĕrba F. 1985. The incidence and seasonal dynamics of yersinioses (Y. pseudotuberculosis, Y. enterocolitica), staphylococcoses and pasteurelloses in hares from 1976 to 1982. Vet Med (Praha), 30, 6: 359-372.
  9. Van Haaften J. Poelma F.G. and Zwart P. 1968. Pasteurella pseudotuberculosis parmi le gibier dans les Pays-Bas. Symp. Series IMmunobiol. Standad 9, 117-120.
  10. Wobeser G. Campbell G.D. Dallaire A. and McBurney S. 2009.Tularemia, plague, yersiniosis, and Tyzzer’s disease in wild rodents and lagomorphs in Canada: A review. Canadian veterinary journal, 50, 12: 1251-1256.
  11. Wuthe H.H. Aleksić S. and Kwapil S. Yersinia in the European Brown Hare of Northern Germany. In Ravagnan G and Chiesa C. eds. 1995.Yersiniosis: Present and Future. Contributions to microbiology and immunology. Basel, Karger. 13. 51-54. Laatst bijgewerkt: 29 september 2015

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